Study Selection Only studies that used individual psychodynamic psychotherapy lasting for at least a year, or 50 sessions; had a prospective design; and reported reliable outcome measures were included.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were considered.Twenty-three studies involving a total of 1053 patients were included (11 RCTs and 12 observational studies).

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Effect sizes were calculated for overall effectiveness, target problems, general psychiatric symptoms, personality functioning, and social functioning.

To examine the stability of outcome, effect sizes were calculated separately for end-of-therapy and follow-up assessment.

Results According to comparative analyses of controlled trials, LTPP showed significantly higher outcomes in overall effectiveness, target problems, and personality functioning than shorter forms of psychotherapy.

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It is our goal to improve competency through validation of the technical education process.

The success of our current and future workforce depends upon everyone in the HVACR industry continually validating and updating their skills at all levels; students, technicians and educators.

Additionally, we need to ensure that training programs are meeting the necessary standards to ensure a highly skilled workforce and that the individuals responsible for training are knowledgeable and competent in their technical and teaching skills.

Context The place of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) within psychiatry is controversial.

Convincing outcome research for LTPP has been lacking.