Learn about different types of radiometric dating, such as carbon dating.Understand how decay and half life work to enable radiometric dating.

Like Finnish and Hungarian, Estonian is a predominantly agglutinative language, but unlike them, it has lost vowel harmony, the front vowels occurring exclusively on the first or stressed syllable, although in older texts the vowel harmony can still be recognized.

Furthermore, the apocope of word-final sounds is extensive and has contributed to a shift from a purely agglutinative to a fusional language. The two different historical Estonian languages (sometimes considered dialects), the North and South Estonian languages, are based on the ancestors of modern Estonians' migration into the territory of Estonia in at least two different waves, both groups speaking considerably different Finnic vernaculars.

Modern standard Estonian has evolved on the basis of the dialects of Northern Estonia.

The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Denmark, Germany, Sweden, and Russia delayed indigenous literacy in Estonia.

The oldest written records of the Finnic languages of Estonia date from the 13th century.

Originates Livoniae in Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences.In 1525 the first book published in the Estonian language was printed.One distinctive feature that has caused a great amount of interest among linguists is what is traditionally seen as three degrees of phonemic length: short, long, and "overlong", such that Estonian belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages, along with Finnish, Karelian, and other nearby languages.The Uralic languages do not belong to the Indo-European languages.Estonian is distantly related to Hungarian and to the Sami languages.Estonian has been influenced by Swedish, German (initially Middle Low German, which was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League and spoken natively in the territories of what is today known as Estonia by a sizeable burgher community of Baltic Germans, later Estonian was also influenced by standard German), and Russian, though it is not related to them genetically.